- Hole-in-the-Head Disease
Head and Lateral Line Disease is also known as Hole-in-the-Head Disease, Lateral Line Erosion (LLE), and Lateral Line Disease (LLD). In saltwater fish it is occasionally referred to as Marine Head and Lateral Line Erosion (MHLLE) or Head and Lateral Line Erosion Syndrome (HLLES). Though its cause is not definitively determined, a recent study was conducted by Jay Hemdal and reported in Coral Magazine in the spring of 2011. The focus of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the use of activated carbon in aquariums and the development of HLLES in surgeonfish. From the results of the study, it has been suggested that HLLE is a result of activated carbon used in the aquarium. Fish from the study that developed HLLE were in two control groups, one group treated with unwashed lignin carbon and the other with pelletized carbon. A third group of fishes were in a control group where no carbon was used, and they did not develop Head and Lateral Line Disease.
The study was conducted only on marine fishes. Not all species of fish show the same symptoms of the disease however, and they do not always develop lesions to the same degree. It has been suggested that in freshwater fishes the causes seem to be different, but that is not yet substantiated.
Previously Head and Lateral Line Disease was thought to be caused by a poor diet or lack of variety, a nutritional deficiency of one or more of: Vitamin C, Vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus; lack of partial water changes; or over filtration with chemical media such as activated carbon.
The best treatment suggestions at this time are to use a quarantine tank that offers a stress free environment with good quality water. Provide a quality diet including vegetable foods, places to hide, and a quiet area for the aquarium. HLLE has been reversed by one or more of the following treatments: (This disease is often confused with another disease called '', because both these diseases are often seen simultaneously in the same fish. Hexamita is a protozoan disease that attacks the lower intestine. Discus and other large cichlids, especially Oscars, are especially prone to Hexamita.)
Swim bladder problems usually indicate another problem listed here. If you suspect swim-bladder problems in a fish, first check and treat it for other diseases as listed below: If you have eliminated other causes, make sure you are feeding the right food and make sure the fish is not constipated. Give it live food for awhile to ensure it is getting enough roughage. Also, check the temperature for your fish's requirements and keep the temperature stable.
Let's get back to the problem. You can do hypo in the DT, but given that all your fish are heavily infested, that's not the method I would use since hypo is not an aggressive treatment. I would recommend pull all your fish out inot a large 75 gallon QT and dose cupramine immediately. Take 3 days to ramp up the dosage to 0.36ppm, or 0.12ppm per day. I take it that you don't have a cycled HOB filter to use for QT. You will have huge water quality issue ahead of you and you will likely have to do large (>50%) water change per day to combat ammonia/nitrite. Make sure there's absolutely NO ammonia in the QT. Test twice a day, and if any is detected, do 50% water change. I would wait to treat for fin rot until ich is controlled by copper. Once that's done, use maracyn 2 for saltwater to treat for fin rot.
Royal Gramma w/finrot | Saltwaterfish Forum
Saltwater, because of its antiseptic properties, is an effective way to treat mild fin rot. Isolate the sick fish to a tub or quarantine tank filled with tap water having a temperature similar to the water in the aquarium. Fix a heater in it with the temperature between 77°F and 78°F .
Treatment question (Ich, black Ich, fin rot) | Saltwaterfish Forum
Fin rot, a common problem in aquarium fishes, is not a disease by itself, but a symptom of an underlying condition where the fins and tail become worn out or ragged [1,3]. Also known as tail rot, it can affect any aquarium fish, though certain tropical freshwater and saltwater species have a greater risk of attaining fin rot than others [1, 2].
fin rot? or just an agressive tank mate? | Saltwaterfish Forum