Innate host defense mechanisms of fish against viruses and bacteria.

As any mildly experienced aquarist knows, not all bacteria are bad news. Even though all pathogenic prokaryotes are bacteria, not all bacteria are pathogenic. In fact, the benign, nitrifying bacteria that colonize filter media (and all other hard surfaces in an aquarium) do a great service by breaking down the ammonia waste produced by fish. The Nitrogen Cycle is further explained in our .

Probiotic strains passed to muscle increasing beneficial lactic acid bacteria in fish.

New tank syndrome, also known as the Nitrogen Cycle, happens when a new tank is started. First, poisonous ammonia, produced by the fish, reaches a high level. An ammonia-eating bacteria will then grow to clear it up and the level falls. This produces equally-poisonous nitrite, which reaches a high level. Next, a new nitrite-eating bacteria develops to clear it up and the level falls, producing relatively safe nitrate. Nitrate is removed by routine water changes. This process takes several weeks, sometimes months and can kill the first few fish! You can start a tank in two days that is then safe for the first fish.

Antibiotic resistant bacteria in fish from the Concepción Bay, Chile.

Part 9: Practice of Fish Bacteriology: Isolation andidentification of fish bacterial pathogens;. Fish-handler's disease occurs when cuts or scrapes in the skin become infected with the bacteria and other species. This is an erysipeloid infection. Handling and preparing fish and shellfish and many other similar activities can create small cuts and scrapes in the skin, where bacteria may enter. Developing fish-handler's disease requires deliberate contact with fish, particularly lobster and other shellfish. Fish-handler's disease occurs worldwide wherever fish and shellfish are handled.

Common Aquatic Bacteria Responsible for Fish Kill - Aquarius Systems

The tet genes of 43 Tetr gram-negative strains of bacteria were identified. Thirty-one contained tetB, and the other 12 contained tetC, tetD, tetG, or tetY. The genes of 23 Tetr strains were not identified. The prevalence of tetB in the fish farms was higher than that previously reported for tetB in clinical strains (, , ) or in phylloplane bacteria in an apple orchard (). In place of tetB, tetA and tetE have been reported as prevalent in fish farms and marine environments (, , , , , , ). Although neither tetA nor tetE was amplified by PCR in this experiment, the number of the strains that produced no PCR product was only 15 and did not exceed the number of tetB strains.

FISH of adherent bacteria in mouse distal small intestine