This study has identified that AOA are the dominant ammonia oxidizing microorganisms in freshwater aquarium biofilters. Aquarium ammonium concentrations were significantly and inversely correlated with AOA∶AOB ratios. Freshwater aquarium AOA amoA gene sequences largely clustered with other freshwater-associated sequences. This work provides a foundation for future studies of aquarium nitrification and AOA ecology. Aquaria may serve as valuable microcosms to investigate the factors affecting AOA and AOB dynamics in both natural and engineered aquatic communities, including wastewater treatment systems, aquaculture, lakes, rivers and oceans.
Ammonia is perhaps the most common and toxic aquarium pollutant
Throughout the cycling process and beyond, test the tank water for levels of ammonia, nitrites and nitrates using the appropriate test kits, readily available from aquarium supply and pet stores. You will note spikes at intervals during the cycling stage, but in an established tank, levels of the first two should be undetectable. Levels of nitrates should be very low, although some creatures need slightly higher levels than others. If you see a rise in any of the three, but especially the highly toxic ammonia and nitrites, take immediate action with as many partial water changes as needed to get levels back to a safe point. Water changes are critical in this situation, although you can also use an ammonia reliever. Several products are available at pet and aquarium stores. If you use one, make sure it's suitable for saltwater tanks and note you must still conduct water changes.
Effects of ammonia on aquarium fish | Algone
To start the fishless nitrogen cycling process, you need a fish tank, an aquarium filter system, a heater if you plan to get tropical fish, water conditioner, a liquid test kit (test strips are generally slightly less accurate), and a source of ammonia.
Ammonia and the Reef Aquarium by Randy Holmes-Farley
Like all living creatures, fish give off waste products (pee andpoo). These nitrogenous waste products break down into ammonia (NH3),which is highly toxic to most fishes. In nature, the volume of waterper fish is extremely high, and waste products become diluted to lowconcentrations. In aquariums, however, it can take as little as a fewhours for ammonia concentrations to reach toxic levels.Algae spores are invisible and they are present in each aquarium. We have to prevent them to become an algae. How we said before, they need for their growth ammonia (NH4) and energy – light. You can’t give them these two things, otherwise there will be a big algae bloom. You can’t turn off lights because plants wouldn’t grow so there is only one possible solution: There can’t be any ammonia (NH4) at all!